About Russian Federation
All over the world there is no country which would have more extensive territory than the Russian Federation. The record figures – about 17,1 million the square kilometers stretch from the east to the west of Eurasia’s continent. However, we have much more land situated in Asia – approximately 70 %, the rest is in Europe. In the other words Russia primarily occupies northern and north-eastern areas of Eurasia.
Because of the large extension from the west to the east the visible difference in time is observed. Russian people live in 10 time zones.
First of all the size of localities and also the quantity of its population influence on the time zone’s division. If the population density is rather great, the borders of time zones are determined according to the administrative subjects of federation. In the areas where few number of Russian people live and also in the territory of the seas the time zones are accepted to be divided according to the meridians.
Concerning of the borders of our country.40 of 60 thousand kilometers of the border is occupied by maritime spaces. Such a rich possession of sea resources plays an important role both in economic and political situation. The Russian Federation is one of the fundamental and strongest maritime power in the world. The sea borders of our country extend along water basins of three oceans at once, that also helps us to keep the reputation.
In the north they stretch on seas of the Arctic Ocean. There are five of them: the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the East-Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea. However, it is practically impossible to use mentioned seas for navigation and active transportations – during the whole year the ices drift here. The territory from northern cost of our country to North Pole is an our part of Arctic. Within this space all islands (except some isles of the Svalbard archipelago) belong to the Russian Federation.
South-western sea border of Russia is covered in waters of the Sea of Azov, the Caspian and Black seas. Waters of these seas separate Russia from Ukraine, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Rumania. The Black Sea enables our country an exit to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Baltic Sea is considered to be the western sea border of Russia. Here the system of navigation constantly develops and improved that considerably contributes to establishing a stable economic relations with the foreign states. By means of Baltic Russia is connected with such European countries as Sweden, Poland, Germany and the Baltics.
The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Pacific basin pass on borders of the eastern part of Russia. The USA and Japan are situated near enough from maritime Far East boundary. Russia and Japan are divided with Strait of La Perusa located in the Sea of Japan between Sakhalin and Hokkaido Islands.
Sea waters stretching along 370 kilometers from the cost are considered a marine economic zone of the Russian Federation. All states’ vessels can be present here but only Russians representatives might be engaged in fishing trades in these waters and use the other natural resources.
To define a geographical position of the Russian Federation we need to know end continental points of our country. The most northerly point is cape of Chelyuskin situated on Taimyr peninsula. The end island point is Cape Fligeli located on Rudolf Island in Franz-Josef archipelago.
In the south Georgia and Azerbaijan became a neighboring to us countries. The point located on a spine of the main Caucasian range (41012’ northern latitude) is considered a southern boundary.
The most westerly point is Sandspit exactly its top located in waters of the Baltic sea, not far from Kaliningrad. Cape Dezhnev is the most easterly boundary of continent. It is situated in Chukotka. And the end point, concerning of islands, was placed near to American’s border. It is Rotmanov Island in the Bering sea.
In spite of the fact that the Russian Federation possesses the most part of maritime spaces, one can’t help appreciating the meaning of her overland borders.
Russia is separated from 14 countries by the land, among which are China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Finland, Norway and Korea.
In total there is 1605 km of frontier lands. 990 km of overland border is occupied by the Baltics (I think, it should be concretized), and 615 km - by Azerbaijan and Georgia. To cross the border it is necessary to pass frontier guards and customs. The Russian frontier forces watch the security of borders with the countries of the former USSR.
The situation with overland borders has undergone significant changes after disintegration of the USSR. The border with China has been twice decreased. The border with Poland was reduced - Only the Kaliningrad region keeps in touch with this West-European country.
The special international agreement regulates borders with Norway and Finland. Observance of the agreement requirements is watched by customs experts. To get to the mentioned countries it is necessary to show lots of special documents.
It is much easier to overcome borders of the CIS countries (the Commonwealth of the Independent States). The matter is that they - namely borders - have enough conventional character. Today there aren’t any documents precisely stipulating for their boundaries.
At all times extensive possessions of Russia were attractive to the other states. And nowadays some countries look out on the property of the Russian Federation. Naturally struggle for territories is led both on official, and on informal levels. For example, Japan reckons on a part of The Kurils (Kunashir, Shikotan, Haboshan, and Hump). Estonia defends the rights to Pechersky region, Latvia - to Pytalovsky region, Finland wishes to possess of Karelia.
The distance from the majority of the European countries is observed. Russia has unstable political and economic relations with the Baltics, Belarus and Ukraine. Frankly speaking the situation is saved with presence at us networks gas and oil pipelines - they extend to the West and the East of Europe. The network of the transport ways connecting Russia with other countries is arranged. Transport connections with Belarus, Poland, Germany, France, Czechia, Hungary and Austria are especially important. The main line Moscow - Minsk - Warsaw - Berlin - Paris and the railway Prague - Budapest - the Vienna make use of a special authority.