About Russia

Ryazan

According to the chronicles, the city Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy was founded in 6603 from Creation of the World, otherwise in 1095, that was a year earlier, than Old Ryazan’s appearance. The city is considered to be arisen within the epoch of a feudal society. The city appeared in this place not accidentally. The Oka generously supplied surrounding lands with water and there was the bridge connecting the East and the Europe. Furthermore, some sources pointed out, that there was a passage-way from the Oka to the Don in a place of Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy’s existence.

Ryazan

The Ryazan woods were full of game; the land was rich in iron ore and a limestone, the geographical position answered to one of the main requirement - namely to safety: the city was impregnable for enemies. It is necessary to mention some historic facts concerning of this city’s appearance. As far back as the 10th century the Slavic settlement arose on this place. Nowadays, historians name it Old Ryazan. However, the Tatar-Mongolian invasion stopped the city’s development, strangers destroyed practically everything, and then internal problems prevented from the further city’s prosperity.

The founder of the city was the grandson of well-known Yaroslav the Wise Oleg. Initially, Pereslavl-Zalesskiy was the outpost of the Ìurom and Ryazan princedom. Local princes of that time were similar to the others concerning of their behaviour and constantly led the internal wars. Within two centuries, the city was attacked by the armies of the Rostov and Suzdal princedom, then by the Moscow prince Daniel, and then by Yaroslav Pronskiy. The advantages of the city were obvious not only for the numerous immigrants, but also for the clergy. At the end of the XIIIth century the Episcopal chair was transferred here from the Ryazan ruined by Mongols.

During the 13th – the 14th centuries, princes tried to use the Tatar-Mongolian yoke to strengthen the authority and to expand territory of the Ryazan princedom. Attempts to negotiate with Moscow about returning the lost Kolomna have brought a doubtful success. As a result prince Oleg refused to help the Moscow prince Dmitry in the Kulikovskaya Battle, and moreover he gave away prince, therefore he was punished. A lot of problems were connected with the Ryazan apanage princedom Pronskoe which appeared absolutely unexpectedly for Oleg either with its armies or together with the Horde.

In the middle of the XIVth century Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy officially became the capital of the Ryazan princedom. By that time it turned into the large enough commercial and craft center. One can find the mentions about the persons who lived here at those times in the historical chronicles. One of this sources was the contract of 1496. This contract tells us about people who served to the princely court yard. The duties, which inhabitants of Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy were obliged to carry out, were regulated. Among them there were harbourers, gardeners, potters, fishers, fodders and many others. The main duty was construction. The population of the church suburbs was exempted from the duties.

Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy continued to play the important role in the transit trade between the East and Northeast Russia. The ways to Constantinople and the Persian shah passed through the Ryazan lands.

Unfortunately, other princes could not preserve the independence of the lands, and one of them, Fedor, dying, has left all the Ryazan lands to Moscow. Prior to him, governors mainly stayed in Moscow, and deputies were engaged in operating. The authority of prince remained formal and consequently Fedor's decision was quite clear.

Ivan Ivanovich, considered the last Ryazan prince, having used confusion in Moscow that was connected with the attack of Mohammed-Girey, has run away to Lithuania, and in 1521 the Ryazan princedom finally was included into the Moscow state. Within two centuries after this occurrence, Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy continued to remain the outpost of the Moscow state. The crafts developed in the city. The population increased and gradually moved out the fortress. The new suburbs with streets appeared. In 1650 inhabitants built up anew the Pereyaslavl fortress.

In spite of the rapid development, the city lost its military significance and turned into a province. There were some reasons for it, among which one can point out the absence of enemies and expansion of the Moscow princedom’s territory.

After finishing the military construction, the temple architecture started to develop in the city. In 1642 Vasily Dubov erected the unique double-headed church of The Spirit’s monastery. In the middle of the 17th century the Bogoyavlenskaya church and Ioann Predtechi church were built. The remarkable feature of the Ryazan architecture of the 17th century was its ability to anticipate the Naryshkin baroque – the new style in Russian architecture. The sample of this style was preserved till now – it is the Borisoglebskaya church.

By the beginning of the 18th century the stone construction was stopped. The Northern war has begun. Each fourth bell was withdrawn for needs of army.

In the same century, according to Peter's I reforms, Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy became the regional center of the Moscow province. Later on, in 1719, the Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy province was created.

In 1778 the birth of "new" city happened. Pereyaslavl-Ryazanskiy was renamed into Ryazan on the order of Catherine the Great and tens years later, in 1796, it became the acknowledged center of the Ryazan province.

The geographical position that defined agricultural mode of life, told on the province’s development in the 18th century. However, capitalism developed and the first manufactories that belonged to merchant class were organized.

In 1801 the first printing house opened, and 37 years later the newspaper «the Ryazan provincial registers» started to be published. The attention was paid to developing the educational system. So, as early as 1722 the first secular school was opened.

1866 became a year of developing a transport network in province, the railway connecting Ryazan and Moscow was opened. The city developed by quite rapid rates, and as a result, in 1905, 36 thousand people lived there, whereas at the beginning of the 18th century there were only 4 or 5 thousand people.

The difficult times came to Ryazan in the 20th century. So, here, in the territory of the monastery Bolsheviks organized one of the first concentration camps in Russia. In 1918 the group of KGB servicemen shot the meeting of peace inhabitants. A lot of people were killed or severely tormented.

After finishing the civil war in 1930, Ryazan, according to new territorial division of the country, became the regional city of the Moscow area. However, the difficulties have not ended. In 1937 the Ryazan edge again underwent to repressions. During the Great Patriotic war, the front line passed near to the city. Hundreds of people have not returned from the battle’s field.

In post-war years, Ryazan, as well as the other cities, restored the forces. In 1968 the new general plan of the city was approved.

Nowadays, Ryazan, being a small city, attracts attention of many people due to a unique combination of provinciality, original mystery and also its simplicity, an openness and aspiration to development.







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