The History of Yoshkar-Ola

Yoshkar-Ola in Russian language means Red City. His birth is associated with a major historical event - entering the Mari region to the Russian state in the middle of the XVI century, after the defeat of the Kazan Khanate. In 1584 under Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich by order of Boris Godunov, among woods and swamps on the left bank of the Volga, on its tributary - the Little Kokshaga, 860 miles from Moscow "Tsar city on Kokshaga" was founded.

Construction of the new city Tsarev, like other Russian fortresses and cities in Kazan land in 70-90 years of the XVI century, was caused by the aggravation of social contradictions in the region. These contradictions were solved by organizing military campaigns and the construction of military fortifications. In October 1552, after several wars, the Khanate of Kazan, which included land meadow Mari, was destroyed by Ivan the Terrible. Local population began to pay tribute to the Moscow government, but from December 1562 the resistance started. During suppressing the rebellion Ivan the Terrible decided to consolidate newly conquered territory by building fortress-cities. The first inhabitants of the fortress cities were mostly military men led by the commander.

The first name of the city (1584) - Tsarev city. Then, to determine the location (since it was not the only city Tsarev) it was named Tsar city on Kokshaga or Tsarev city Kokshaysky. Hence later formed a long time stuck official name of the city - Tsarevokokshaisk.

The city and county of the same name were controlled by voivod. Under Peter I, Tsar city on Kokshaga joined the vast Kazan Province, and according to the provincial reform of Catherine II in 1775 Tsarevokokshaisk was one of 12 district centers transformed Kazan province with all attributes. In 1781 the town received its first coat of arms: in the upper part of it - a black dragon with red wings and a golden crown (a symbol of Kazan province), and at the bottom - "silver elk in a blue field, in a sign that those animals in the vicinity very much .. ".

The function of the city-fortress, which served Tsarevokokshaisk was exclusively military-administrative. The voivode was the chief representative of power in Tsarevokokshaisk, he was endowed with unlimited military, administrative and judicial powers. The city built by "irregular quadrangular figure," had all the necessary defenses – ditch, earth mound, guard towers, the east side of the river belonged to the Little Kokshaga, and on three sides surrounded by ditches, ramparts and walls with wood five towers, three of which were with passage outposts.

Gradually losing military value at the end of the XVI century, Tsarevokokshaisk transformed into a town, where in addition to the king's archers and military people, also merchants, artisans and farmers lived. Next to the military fortress gradually small posad arose. Staying for a long time wooden, it repeatedly burned. The first stone buildings appeared only in the middle of the XVIII century. Most of them were the churches. In the city, there were five: Trinity, Ascension, entrance of Jerusalem, Tikhvin Cemetery and Resurrection Cathedral. Now part of the churches and other historic buildings reconstructed, undergoing restoration, but some have been lost forever.

By the early twentieth century Tsarevokokshaisk was a quiet country town. By 1903 the town had 15 streets, three square, the main of which Bazaar (now pl.Revolyutsii), a public garden, five elementary schools (one of which was later converted into a girls' gymnasium), two libraries, one hospital. The town's population was 2554 people. On literacy Tsarevokokshaisk stood out among other cities of Kazan province - 60.9% of the population was considered literate.

The peasantry was the most numerous caste here, then there were burghers, nobles, clergy, merchants. The agriculture was basis of the economy, there was one plant - Winery, worked until 1914. The city was connected with the central Russian provinces only by dirt roads. In this form it survived almost 20 years of the twentieth century.

After 19I7, the city has grown and became the capital of the Mari Autonomous Region, proclaimed in 1920, and then the capital of MASSR (since 1936). City twice (in 1919 and 1928 r.g.) has changed its name - initially for Krasnokokshaysk, then this is Yoshkar-Ola (translated from Mari the "Red City"). During the Great Patriotic War in Yoshkar-Ola from frontline some plants were evacuated, these plants in the following years gave a powerful impetus to the development of Mari industry and, consequently, the social and economic development of the capital. Now it is Mari engineering plant, semiconductor devices factory, etc.

Now Yoshkar-Ola is the capital of the Republic of Mari El, industrial, cultural, administrative center of the country. The city has more than 200 monuments of history and culture, both local and national significance. Among the masterpieces of architecture protected by the state, can be called Ascension Church (1756), House of Pchelin (tne middle of XVIII c.), Government House (1937). There is a restoration of individual monuments, temples, such as the House of Lohanov on Chernyshevsky street (built in the early of XX century.), Trinity and Ascension Orthodox churches, and others. It was revived the traditional religion of the local population - Paganism. Muslim mosques are constructed. All this and much more said about the revival of the historical heritage.

The city grows and builds. It is decorated with modern housing estates and public buildings. Monuments, parks and gardens, an abundance of flowers and greenery, the river Malaya Kokshaga give to the city peculiarity. Its streets, squares and boulevards are unique. In 1990, the city of Yoshkar-Ola was included into a number of the historical cities of Russia. Yoshkar-Ola is a twin city of Szombathely, Hungary, the French city of Bourges. In March 2003, signed an agreement on friendship and cooperation between Princeton, West Virginia, USA, and the capital of the Republic of Mari El, Yoshkar-Ola.